Cost utility analysis (CUA)

CUA aims to determine cost in terms of utilities, to say in quantity and quality of life. The incremental cost of a programme from a particular point of view is compared to the incremental health improvement expressed in the unit... Read more

Costs Intangible

These relate to issues such as anxieties and impact on quality of life resulting from participation in the programme. These are generally difficult to measure and value and are often not included in the construction of the cost profile of... Read more

Costs indirect

These relate to the losses to society incurred as a result of participating in the programme, such as the impact on production, domestic responsibilities, and social and leisure activities.

Costs direct

All resources that are consumed in the provision of a health promotion programme. These may be incurred by the health promotion service, community, or clients.


The economic definition of cost (also known as opportunity cost) is the value of opportunity forgone, strictly the best opportunity forgone, as a result of engaging resources in an activity. Note that there can be a cost without the exchange... Read more

Cost effectiveness analysis (CEA)

Aims to examine the costs of various approaches to achieving a specific health outcome. The analysis measures outcomes in ‘natural units’.

Cost-enefit analysis (CBA)

Aims to determine whether the economic value of an intervention can justify its costs, by comparing the cost of two or more alternatives and reviewing the return on investment.

Clinical effectiveness

The application of interventions which have been shown to be efficacious to appropriate patients in a timely fashion to improve patients’ outcomes and value for the use of resources.

Budget Impact Analysis (BIM)

Aims to estimate the change in expenditure to a specific budget holder and primarily assesses financial affordability of an intervention.


A benefit is a measurable improvement resulting from change considered to be advantageous by at least one stakeholder that contributes to an organisational change. Intangible benefits relate to issues such as improvements in health and well-being and/or quality of life.