In association with

  • West
  • NHS


Health economics

The study of how scarce resources are allocated among alternative uses for the care of sickness and the promotion, maintenance, and improvement of health. This includes the study of how health care and health-related services, their costs and benefits, and health itself are distributed among individuals and groups in society.

Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER)

Obtained by dividing the difference between the costs of the two interventions by the difference in the outcomes (i.e., the extra cost per extra unit of effect).

Logic Model

“Logic models describe the relationship between an intervention’s inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes, and impacts”

“A logic model is a systematic and visual way to present and share your understanding of the relationships among the resources you have to operate your program, the activities you plan, and the changes or results you hope to achieve”

Natural Experiments

“work best in circumstances where a relatively large population is affected by a substantial change in a well-understood environmental exposure, and where exposures and outcomes can be captured through routine data sources, such as environmental monitoring and mortality records”

MRC (2006) Developing and evaluating complex interventions: new guidance

Outcome Measure

“changes (desirable and undesirable) in individuals and populations that are attributed to” intervention / service.

“denotes the effects of care on the health status of patients and the population”

MRC (2006) Developing and evaluating complex interventions: new guidance


The point of view from which an analysis is carried out. The NHS perspective considers costs and benefits from the point of view of the healthcare system.

Process Measure

“interactions between healthcare practitioner and patient; a series of actions, changes, or functions bringing about a result (such as mammography screening rate)”

“denotes what is actually being done in giving and receiving care”

UK Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance (2014) Process Evaluation of Complex Interventions