In association with

  • West
  • NHS



“Confounding refers to a situation in which a measure of the effect of an intervention or exposure is distorted because of the association of exposure with other factor(s) that influence the outcome under investigation. This can lead to erroneous conclusions being drawn, particularly in observational studies”.


“measure/judge current service without reference to a standard, “What standard does this service achieve?”

“A study in which research procedures are used in a systematic way to judge the quality or value of a service or intervention, providing evidence that can be used to improve it”
West of England Evaluation Strategy Group, 2013