In association with

  • West
  • NHS


Logic Model

“Logic models describe the relationship between an intervention’s inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes, and impacts”

“A logic model is a systematic and visual way to present and share your understanding of the relationships among the resources you have to operate your program, the activities you plan, and the changes or results you hope to achieve”


Natural Experiments

“work best in circumstances where a relatively large population is affected by a substantial change in a well-understood environmental exposure, and where exposures and outcomes can be captured through routine data sources, such as environmental monitoring and mortality records”

MRC (2006) Developing and evaluating complex interventions: new guidance

Outcome Measure

“changes (desirable and undesirable) in individuals and populations that are attributed to” intervention / service.

“denotes the effects of care on the health status of patients and the population”

MRC (2006) Developing and evaluating complex interventions: new guidance

Process Measure

“interactions between healthcare practitioner and patient; a series of actions, changes, or functions bringing about a result (such as mammography screening rate)”

“denotes what is actually being done in giving and receiving care”

UK Medical Research Council (MRC) guidance (2014) Process Evaluation of Complex Interventions


“Qualitative research is used to explore and understand people’s beliefs, experiences, attitudes, behaviour and interactions. It generates non- numerical data, e.g. a patient’s description of their pain rather than a measure of pain. In health care, qualitative techniques have been commonly used in research documenting the experience of chronic illness and in studies about the functioning of organisations. Qualitative research techniques such as focus groups and in-depth interviews have been used in one-off projects commissioned by guideline development groups to find out more about the views and experiences of patients and carers”.

Quasi-experimental Evaluation

“A quasi-experiment is an observational study in which the subjects to be observed are not randomly assigned to different groups in order to measure outcomes, as in a randomized experiment, but grouped according to a characteristic that they already possess”

APCRC Toolkit