In association with

  • Bristol, North Somerset and South Gloucestershire Integrated Care Board
  • West of England Academic Health Science Network
  • National Institute for Health Research


Costs indirect

These relate to the losses to society incurred as a result of participating in the programme, such as the impact on production, domestic responsibilities, and social and leisure activities.

Costs Intangible

These relate to issues such as anxieties and impact on quality of life resulting from participation in the programme. These are generally difficult to measure and value and are often not included in the construction of the cost profile of an economic evaluation.


The need, ability, and willingness to pay for a commodity.


The mathematical procedure for adjusting future costs and outcomes of health‐care interventions to “present value”; this adjusts for differences in the timing of cost (expenditure) compared to health benefits (outcomes).


The extent to which programmes achieve their objectives, in real-life settings.



The effect of an intervention under ideal conditions, with participants fully complying with the programme.


Maximising the benefit to any resource expenditure (funds, expertise, time, etc), or minimising the cost of any achieved benefit.


“measure/judge current service without reference to a standard, “What standard does this service achieve?”

“A study in which research procedures are used in a systematic way to judge the quality or value of a service or intervention, providing evidence that can be used to improve it”
West of England Evaluation Strategy Group, 2013