“Qualitative research is used to explore and understand people’s beliefs, experiences, attitudes, behaviour and interactions. It generates non- numerical data, e.g. a patient’s description of their pain rather than a measure of pain. In health care, qualitative techniques have been commonly used in research documenting the experience of chronic illness and in studies about the functioning of organisations. Qualitative research techniques such as focus groups and in-depth interviews have been used in one-off projects commissioned by guideline development groups to find out more about the views and experiences of patients and carers”.
Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs)
Calculated by adjusting the estimated number of life-years an individual is expected to gain from an intervention for the expected quality of life in those years. The quality of life score will range between 0 for death, to 1 for perfect health, with negative scores being allowed for states considered worse than death.
“Quantitative research generates numerical data or data that can be converted into numbers, for example clinical trials or the National Census, which counts people and households”.
“A quasi-experiment is an observational study in which the subjects to be observed are not randomly assigned to different groups in order to measure outcomes, as in a randomized experiment, but grouped according to a characteristic that they already possess”
APCRC Toolkit http://www.apcrc.nhs.uk/evaluation/documents/theoretical_approaches.pdf
A process through which the robustness of an economic model is assessed by examining the changes in results of the analysis when key variables are varied over a specified range.
“measures of organizational characteristics (such as staffing ratios, number of hospital beds)” Or “Denotes attributes of the setting in which care occurs”
Donabedian (1997) http://post.queensu.ca/~hh11/assets/applets/The_Quality_of_Care__How_Can_it_Be_Assessed_-_Donabedian.pdf
An evaluation “conducted at the end of an intervention (or a phase of that intervention) to determine the extent to which anticipated outcomes were produced”
WHO (2013) Evaluation Practice Handbook
Theory Based Evaluation
“Combining outcome data with an understanding of the process that led to those outcomes”
W.K. Kellogg Foundation (2010) Evaluation Handbook
“Triangulation, first used in 1959, is defined as a combination of multi methods in a study of the same object or event to depict more accurately the phenomenon being investigated”.
The value in today’s terms of future costs or benefits (after discounting).